Search Here

Get A Price


Payment And Security

Payement Options

Free Resources

  • Plagiarism Checker
  • Grammar Checker
  • Word Counter


Guide: Chicago Referencing Style

The Chicago Manual of Style refers to the style guide for the American English that was published in 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. The seventeen editions have various recommended writing and citation styles that have been widely used in publishing. This is considered to be one of the extensively used style guides in the United States. The main focus of this guide is on the American English and deals with the terms of the editorial practice, including grammar and usage and preparation and formatting of the document.

Things to Remember

The Chicago Manual of Style/ Turabian citation style involves two citation system: notes and bibliography system and the author-date system.

One style makes use of the footnotes that are marked in the text along with the reference number and explained briefly at the end of the page and the bibliographies. These must include all the works cited directly in the piece of writing. This is similar to that of Oxford referencing.

Citing a Book

For one author:

Footnote Style

Format: Last name, initial name. Title. Edition. (City in which it was published: publisher, year).

Example: Davis, Bryan. History of Chocolate. (Nottingham: Delectable Publications, 2011).

In-text Style

Last name, initial name. Year. Title. Edition. City of publication: publisher.

Davis, Bryan. 2011. A history of chocolate. 3rd ed. Nottingham: Delectable Publications.

Citing Journal Articles

Footnote Style

Last name, first initial. “Article Title”. Name of Journal, volume. Issue (Year): Pages. Accessed: Date, DOI/URL.

In-text Style

Last name, initial name. Year. “Title of Article”, Journal name, Volume. Issue: Pages. Accessed: Date. DOI or URL.

Citing Newspaper

Structure: Last name, First name. “Title of Article”. Title of Newspaper, Month Date, Publication Year.

Example: Kaman, Lee. “Bills Target Lake Erie Mussels”. The Pittsburgh Press, March 5, 1991.

*Note: According to Chicago referencing style guide, the newspapers are directly cited in-text and are not involved in the bibliographies.

Citing a Blog

Here is the structure of how to cite a blog.

Format: First name Last name, “Blog Title”, Blog title (BLOG), name of publisher or sponsor of the blog (if applicable), Month Date, Year of the post, URL.

Example: Silver, Nate. “The White House is not a metronome”, FiveThirtyEight (blog), New York Times, July 18, 2012,

Citing a Website

Here is the structure of citing a website.

Format: Last name, first name. “Title of article”. Website title. Month, Date, Publication Year. Updated Month Date, Year. URL.

Example: Roger, Eric. “Yes! The First Free Wireless Plan is Here”. Gizmodo. September 1, 2012.

Citing a TV

In order to structure a TV, following format needs to be considered.

Format: TV series name. “Title of Episode”. Number of Episode (if available). Directed by first name last name. Written by First Name Last name. Name of the network, Month Date, Year of original air date.

Example: House, M.D. “Simple Explanation”. Directed by Greg. Written by Leonard Dick. Fox Broadcasting, April 6, 2009.

Citing an Interview

To cite the interview, here is the format that needs to be followed

Format: Interviewee Last, First M. “Title of the interview”. Interview by First M. Last. Name of Magazine, Month Date, Year.

Example: Obama, Michelle. “Oprah Talks to Michelle Obama”. Interview by Oprah Winfrey. O, The Oprah Magazine, April 2, 2008.

Citing Reports

While citing reports, here is the basic format that needs to be followed.

Format: Last name, First name. Title of Work. Publisher city: Publisher, Publication Year. Accessed Month Date, Year. URL.

Example: Gorbunova, Yulia. Laws of Attrition: Crackdown on Russia’s Civil Society After Putin’s Return. New York: Human Rights Watch, 2013. Accessed February 11, 2013.

Creating Footnotes and Endnotes for Chicago Style

Chicago’s notes and bibliography formatting needs the writers to make use of the footnotes and endnotes at the time of in-text citations. These footnotes and endnotes concede various sources that have been used in the work. At the time of using a source in a research paper, place the roman numeral at the end of the borrowed information. That number will correlate with a footnote or endnote.

Note: All the above-given formats are standard and the examples are just samples.