Citation: Definition and Its Types

A citation can be defined as an intellectual reference that is used to describe a source from where data is being used to complete a particular writing task and sources can be of a book, published research paper, websites, and blogs. Citation is considered as an abbreviated expression that is alphanumeric in nature and is embedded in body of intellectual work and is kind of bibliographic reference that aims in acknowledging relevance of other authors' work and citation helps in defining place where information researched by other author is being used.


There are various types of citations that can be used by writers according to their preferences and demands by their educational institutions. To write the assignments by using the information or ideas of other writers, it is necessary to cite that particular source. Most of the students simply avail assistance from assignment writers Australia. Generally accepted and preferred references are as follows:

• Oxford
• Turabian
• Chicago
• MLA (Modern Language Association of America)
• ASA (American Sociological Association)
• APA (American Psychological Association)
• AAA (American Anthropological Association)
• CSE (Council of Science Editors)
• CBE (Council of Biology Editors)

It has been found that from all these styles of references the most preferred styles are APA and MLA and demanded highly by most educational institutions and government validation sources.


APA style of citation is the author's data style that is used for referencing and citing. This style of referencing is preferred for citation in most of academic documents such as journal articles and in various books. This citation style is used for citing in field of social science. APA style of citation is used in various fields such as in scientific journals, in books and in academic papers that are written by students in their colleges or universities.

Characteristics of APA style

APA is a complex style of citation and yet most preferred. It has two main characteristics i.e. an in-text citation and reference list.

• In-text Citation: This style of citation involves author-date reference style for citation in text and is accompanied by reference list. For doing reference in APA style, it involves authors name accompanied with year of work. It can also be placed in one parenthesis and is separated using comma that is also known as parenthetical citation or it can also be done by writing author name at starting of sentence in narrative form and year in form of parenthesis and this style is known as narrative citation style.

An example of narrative citation is as follows: Schmidt and Oh (2016) described fear among public and found that findings of science are not real.

Example of Parenthetical citation: In this era, people fear that finding of science is not real (Schmidt & Oh, 2016).

• Reference List: In APA style of the reference list, the list contains name of author, year, title and source form where work has been cited. It is found that if reference is not cited in text, it must be included in reference list.   

Example of Reference List: Author, A., & Author, B.(year). Title of article. Journal Title, Volume, Page range. DOI.


MLA is known as the Modern Language Association, which is a type of citation that focuses on literature and language. MLA style is preferred by students according to the requirements of various institutions. This style of referencing is preferred as it includes all the guidelines that are preferred in modern times. There are various other ways to do citations such as Chicago Referencing Style and APA format, but except this MLA is mostly preferred for citation of various literature, arts and other subjects of humanity. In MLA style of citation, the cited information is mentioned accordingly in place where work of other authors has been used and rest details about citation are added at last in Work Cited List.

It has been found that the Modern Language Association is 8th edition and provides standardized way to writers for adding sources to their papers and format them according to educational institutions guidelines. Institutions use same kind of reference for all students as it becomes easy for them to recognize and understand different types of sources that are being adopted by students and writers. This style of citation format is most preferred and exciting as it has been recently updated and it follows one standard format for all kinds of sources.

Format of MLA based citation Author’s last name, first name. “Title of source” Title of Container, name of other contributors, version, numbers, publisher, publication date, and location.

Consider all these points, the next time you sit back to write the assignments. This will surely help in coming out with an excellent and accurate academic paper.

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