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Guide: APA Referencing Style

APA is the American Psychological Association which is one of the most widely used styles within the social sciences with the aim of citing various sources. This APA citation guide is revised according to the 6th edition of the APA manual. This provides a general format for the in-text citation and the reference page.

The APA referencing style mainly consists of two components: in-text citations all through the assignment and a reference list at the end of the assignment.

In-Text Citations: All Through the Text

At the time of writing an assignment, try and add information about the source in it.

  • The authors’ name
  • The year of publication
  • The number of pages

Citations are usually placed at the end of the sentence in the brackets.

Paraphrase of the source (in your own words)

Pushing the students to learn and cram information and then taking a test of their memory is a steady measure of training.

Quotation (rigorous words from the source)

Broudy (1998, p. 9) debates that “on the common criteria for schooling, our sample citizen has failed because he cannot replicate the necessary skill or apply the relevant principles”.

At the End: References

Once the assignment has been completed, a list of references needs to be included. This may be a single list of almost all the sources that have used to cite in the assignment. Start the referencing list from a new page and title it as ‘References’.

Every item in the list needs to have a specific bibliographic data. Say for instance, in case of a book, ‘bibliographical information’ actually refers to the following: author or the editor, publication year, the title, edition, place of publication and name of the publisher as in the title pages.

Every item in the list must be organized in alphabetical order. Make sure that the titles are in italics. All the references included in the list need to be cited in the text.

How to Cite Journal Article with APA?

Following is the APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of the Article. Periodical Title, Volume.

How to Cite Online Journal Article with APA?

APA format structure:

Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title of the Article. Periodical Title, Volume. DOI: XXXXX.

How to Cite One Work in the Same Citation?


Organize in the alphabetical order, making separations by semicolons:

Example: (ABC, 19XX; DEF, 19XX)


Each and every source will need a separate reference list.

How to Cite a Book in APA?

Following is the format of APA citation that is used in citing a book.


Author, A. (Publication Year). Title. City of publishing, State: Name of Publisher.


Jones, K. (1969). ABC. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.

How to Reference a Newspaper in APA?

The following format will help you know how to cite a newspaper in APA citation style.


Author, A. (Year, Publication Date of Month). Title of the article. Title of newspaper, pp. xx-xx.


David, D. (1998, July 1). Discovery shows an effective weapon. The New York Times, p. D5.

How to Cite a Website in APA?

The below-given format will help you in making a proper citation of a website in APA.


Author, A. (Year, Publication Month and Date). Title of Article. Retrieved from URL.


Simon, B. (2013, January 6). The ABC. Retrieved from (sample)

How to Cite a Film in APA?


Producer, A. (Producer) & Director, A. (director). (Release Year). Title of Picture. Country of origin: Studio.


Bender, L. (Producer), & Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1993). ABC. United States: Miramax.

How to Reference An Interview in APA?

Take into consideration the following format at the time of referencing an interview in APA.


Author, A. (Year, Month Date). Type of Interview.


Marino, B. (2013, August 19). Personal interview.

How to Cite an Encyclopedia Entry in APA?

The following structure will help you make citations of the encyclopedia.


Author, A. (Year of publication). Entry Title. In Title of Encyclopedia, (Vol. XX, pp. XX). City, State of Publication: Publisher.


Kamen, C., & Wilson, A.H. (2011). Monuments. In Encyclopedia of local history. (pp. 363-364). Lanham, MD: Altamira Press.

How to Cite a Lecture in APA?

The following template will help you know the format of how a lecture can be cited in APA.


Author, A. (Year of Publication). Lecture Name or Title. URL from where it is retrieved.


Saito, T. (2011). Me and Technology: A timeline of educational technology. Retrieved from

Note: All the above-given formats are standard and the examples are just samples.